Psychosocial Barriers of Public Transport Use and Social Exclusion among Older Adults: Empirical Evidence from Lahore, Pakistan

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 29;18(1):185. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18010185.


Transport planning and public health have been intertwined historically. The health impact of public transport services, such as social exclusion, is a widely discussed research topic. Social exclusion is a paramount concern for older adults' health in the wake of emerging global challenges. However, there remains a significant research gap on how psychosocial barriers faced by older adults in using public transport services influence the social exclusion behavior. The present research provides empirical evidence and shows the impact of certain psychosocial barriers of public transportation on older adults' social exclusion. A total of 243 Pakistani older adults (aged 60-89 years old) voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants provided self-reports on their psychosocial barriers (including perceived norms, attitude, personal ability, habits, neighborhood social constraints, and intention) and the corresponding social exclusion. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilized for the data analysis. The structural path model supported the significant associations between psychosocial barriers and social exclusion. Except for perceived descriptive norms, all other psychosocial barriers predicted older adults' social exclusion. The research portrays the significance of the psychosocial factors to examine social exclusion and offers practical implications for urban and transport planners. The concerned policymakers can use the research findings to develop age-sensitive, socially sustainable, and healthy cities.

Keywords: older adults; psychosocial; public transport; social exclusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cities
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Pakistan
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Social Isolation*
  • Transportation*