Internal validation of myocardial flow reserve PET imaging using stress/rest myocardial activity ratios with Rb-82 and N-13-ammonia

J Nucl Cardiol. 2021 Jun;28(3):835-850. doi: 10.1007/s12350-020-02464-y. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Abstract

Background: Myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurement provides incremental diagnostic and prognostic information. The objective of the current study was to investigate the application of a simplified model for the estimation of MFR using only the stress/rest myocardial activity ratio (MAR) in patients undergoing rest-stress cardiac PET MPI.

Methods and results: Rest and dipyridamole stress dynamic PET imaging was performed in consecutive patients using 82Rb or 13NH3 (n = 250 each). Reference standard MFR was quantified using a standard one-tissue compartment model. Stress/rest myocardial activity ratio (MAR) was calculated using the LV-mean activity from 2 to 6 minutes post-injection. Simplified estimates of MFR (MFREST) were then calculated using an inverse power function. For 13NH3, there was good correlation between MFR and MFREST values (R = 0.63), with similar results for 82Rb (R = 0.73). There was no bias in the MFREST values with either tracer. The overall diagnostic performance of MFREST for detection of MFR < 2 was good with ROC area under the curve (AUC) = 83.2 ± 1.2% for 13NH3 and AUC = 90.4 ± 0.7% for 82Rb.

Conclusion: MFR was estimated with good accuracy using 82Rb and 13NH3 with a simplified method that relies only on stress/rest activity ratios. This novel approach does not require dynamic imaging or tracer kinetic modeling. It may be useful for routine quality assurance of PET MFR measurements, or in scanners where full dynamic imaging and tracer kinetic modeling is not feasible for technical or logistical reasons.

Keywords: Cardiac PET; Flow quantification; Flow reserve.