The relationship between gout, not associated with the use of diuretics, and the development of coronary heart disease was examined in 5209 subjects originally enrolled in the Framingham Study. Based on 32 years of follow-up, the two year incidence of gout was six times greater in men (3.2/1000) as compared to women (0.5/1000). For both sexes, the incidence of gout showed no clear relationship with age. Among men who never received diuretics, those afflicted by gout, as compared to those without gout, experienced a 60% excess of coronary heart disease (95% confidence limits, 1.1-2.2), primarily attributed to a two fold excess of angina pectoris (95% confidence limits, 1.2-3.1). Although gout was usually associated with other atherogenic risk factors, control of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, alcohol intake, body mass index, and diabetes failed to alter the effect of gout on the preceding coronary events in men. For women, there were no significant associations between gout and coronary heart disease. We conclude that gout, unrelated to the intake of diuretics, imparts an additional risk of coronary heart disease in men, unexplained by clinically measured risk factors.