To assess the disposition, tolerance, and toxicity of an intravenous preparation of immunoglobulin (IGIV) in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates, we administered single doses of 500 or 750 mg/kg to 20 neonates with birth weights between 750 and 1500 g during the first week of life. The infusion of this product was well tolerated. Modest changes in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and total hemolytic complement occurred as expected. Hepatic toxic effects were not detected. Mean peak IgG concentrations were 1564 and 1316 mg/dL for the high-dose and low-dose groups, respectively. Mean IgG concentrations were very similar for both groups on postinfusion days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. IgG concentrations remained above 300 mg/dL in seven of 10 infants in each group by day 21, and in six of the high-dose group and seven of the low-dose group by day 28. Mean elimination half-lives were 22.6 and 22.8 days in the high-dose and low-dose groups, respectively. These data provide a basis for assessment of potential efficacy of IGIV in the prevention of late-onset infection in VLBW neonates.