Since 1979 a prospective randomized trial was done to examine the efficacy of intravesical doxorubicin as prophylaxis against recurrence. After complete transurethral resection of the tumor, patients were divided into 3 groups at random: group 1-no further treatment after transurethral resection, group 2-doxorubicin twice weekly for 6 weeks and group 3-doxorubicin for 1 year. A total of 268 patients entered the study. Neither frequency of recurrences, tumor progression nor survival rate was improved significantly by the adjuvant treatment, so that only a limited number of patients will profit by instillation therapy. Analysis of previously reported data suggests that patients with superficial bladder tumors can be stratified into groups with appreciable differences in risk of progression. With regard to these results a differentiated use of a "wait and see" adjuvant intravesical therapy and more aggressive treatment after transurethral resection of superficial bladder tumors seems to be indicated rather than a general practice of chemoprophylaxis.