Enzymatic Characterization and Comparison of Two Steroid Hydroxylases CYP154C3-1 and CYP154C3-2 from Streptomyces Species

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Mar 28;31(3):464-474. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2010.10020.


Bacterial cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are responsible for the hydroxylation of diverse endogenous substances with a heme molecule used as a cofactor. This study characterized two CYP154C3 proteins from Streptomyces sp. W2061 (CYP154C3-1) and Streptomyces sp. KCCM40643 (CYP154C3-2). The enzymatic activity assays of both CYPs conducted using heterologous redox partners' putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase showed substrate flexibility with different steroids and exhibited interesting product formation patterns. The enzymatic characterization revealed good activity over a pH range of 7.0 to 7.8 and the optimal temperature range for activity was 30 to 37°C. The major product was the C16-hydroxylated product and the kinetic profiles and patterns of the generated hydroxylated products differed between the two enzymes. Both enzymes showed a higher affinity toward progesterone, with CYP154C3-1 demonstrating slightly higher activity than CYP154C3-2 for most of the substrates. Oxidizing agents (diacetoxyiodo) benzene (PIDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also utilized to actively support the redox reactions, with optimum conversion achieved at concentrations of 3 mM and 65 mM, respectively. The oxidizing agents affected the product distribution, influencing the type and selectivity of the CYP-catalyzed reaction. Additionally, CYP154C3s also catalyzed the C-C bond cleavage of steroids. Therefore, CYP154C3s may be a good candidate for the production of modified steroids for various biological uses.

Keywords: (diacetoxyiodo) benzene; C16 hydroxylation; C–C bond cleavage; Steroid hydroxylase; Streptomyces; hydrogen peroxide.