The realisation of fast-charging lithium-ion batteries with long cycle lifetimes is hindered by the uncontrollable plating of metallic Li on the graphite anode during high-rate charging. Here we report that surface engineering of graphite with a cooperative biphasic MoOx-MoPx promoter improves the charging rate and suppresses Li plating without compromising energy density. We design and synthesise MoOx-MoPx/graphite via controllable and scalable surface engineering, i.e., the deposition of a MoOx nanolayer on the graphite surface, followed by vapour-induced partial phase transformation of MoOx to MoPx. A variety of analytical studies combined with thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that MoOx effectively mitigates the formation of resistive films on the graphite surface, while MoPx hosts Li+ at relatively high potentials via a fast intercalation reaction and plays a dominant role in lowering the Li+ adsorption energy. The MoOx-MoPx/graphite anode exhibits a fast-charging capability (<10 min charging for 80% of the capacity) and stable cycling performance without any signs of Li plating over 300 cycles when coupled with a LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode. Thus, the developed approach paves the way to the design of advanced anode materials for fast-charging Li-ion batteries.