Purpose: Long-term studies comparing the mechanisms of different bariatric techniques for T2DM remission are scarce. We aimed to compare type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remission after a gastric bypass with a 200-cm biliopancreatic limb (mRYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and greater curvature plication (GCP), and to assess if the initial secretion of gastrointestinal hormones may predict metabolic outcomes at 5 years.
Material and methods: Forty-five patients with mean BMI of 39.4(1.9)kg/m2 and T2DM with HbA1c of 7.7(1.9)% were randomized to mRYGB, SG, or GCP. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, fasting concentrations of PYY, ghrelin, glucagon, and AUC of GLP-1 after SMT were determined prior to and at months 1 and 12 after surgery. At 5-year follow-up, anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were determined.
Results: Total weight loss percentage (TWL%) at year 1 and GLP-1 AUC at months 1 and 12 were higher in the mRYGB than in the SG and GCP. TWL% remained greater at 5 years in mRYGB group - 27.32 (7.8) vs. SG - 18.00 (10.6) and GCP - 14.83 (7.8), p = 0.001. At 5 years, complete T2DM remission was observed in 46.7% after mRYGB vs. 20.0% after SG and 6.6% after GCP, p < 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, shorter T2DM duration (OR 0.186), p = 0.008, and the GLP-1 AUC at 1 month (OR 7.229), p = 0.023, were prognostic factors for complete T2DM remission at 5-year follow-up.
Conclusions: Long-term T2DM remission is mostly achieved with hypoabsortive techniques such as mRYGB. Increased secretion of GLP-1 after surgery and shorter disease duration were the main predictors of T2DM remission at 5 years.
Keywords: Bariatric surgery; Diabetes remission; Greater curvature plication; Metabolic gastric bypass; Obesity; Sleeve; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.