Recent Developments on Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approaches for COVID-19

AAPS J. 2021 Jan 5;23(1):14. doi: 10.1208/s12248-020-00532-2.


The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made a serious public health threat worldwide with millions of people at risk in a growing number of countries. Though there are no clinically approved antiviral drugs and vaccines for COVID-19, attempts are ongoing for clinical trials of several known antiviral drugs, their combination, as well as development of vaccines in patients with confirmed COVID-19. This review focuses on the latest approaches to diagnostics and therapy of COVID-19. We have summarized recent progress on the conventional therapeutics such as antiviral drugs, vaccines, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody treatments, and convalescent plasma therapy which are currently under extensive research and clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. The developments of nanoparticle-based therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been also discussed for COVID-19. We have assessed recent literature data on this topic and made a summary of current development and future perspectives.

Keywords: ARDS; anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody; antiviral drugs; antiviral vaccines; convalescent plasma therapy; immunotherapy; nanotherapeutics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / adverse effects
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • COVID-19 / diagnosis*
  • COVID-19 / therapy*
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment*
  • COVID-19 Serotherapy
  • COVID-19 Testing*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / adverse effects
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Passive / adverse effects
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • SARS-CoV-2 / drug effects*
  • SARS-CoV-2 / pathogenicity
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antiviral Agents
  • COVID-19 Vaccines