Relative Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacotherapeutic Interventions for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis

Pain Physician. 2021 Jan;24(1):E1-E14.

Abstract

Background: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a most common devitalizing complication of diabetes mellitus, which is primarily characterized by sensory loss, paresthesia, prickling, pain, or allodynia.

Objectives: To evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of the interventions used in the DPN pain management and rank their order.

Study design: A systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA).

Methods: Randomized, controlled trials were identified through a comprehensive, systematic literature exploration, primarily utilizing the PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases. The efficacy and safety outcomes consist of the proportion of patients reporting either 30% or 50% pain reduction and overall withdrawal or withdrawal due to adverse drug events, respectively. Effect estimates from Bayesian NMA were presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95% credible intervals (CrI). Heterogeneity and convergence were assessed by using I2 and deviation information criteria. The risk of bias was evaluated by using Pedro Scale.

Results: A total of 3,246 potentially relevant trials were identified and screened, finally 43 trials consisting of 7,877 randomized patients met the inclusion criteria. Statistically significant treatment difference for 50% pain reduction was reported for duloxetine vs. placebo (OR: 2.50; CrI: 1.62-3.91), mirogabalin vs. placebo (OR: 3.25; CrI: 1.16-9.35), pregabalin vs. placebo (OR: 2.33; CrI: 1.69-3.27), duloxetine vs. carbamazepine (OR: 3.37; CrI: 1.07-10.90), mirogabalin vs. carbamazepine (OR: 4.39; CrI: 1.01-19.63), mirogabalin vs. lamotrigine (OR: 4.05: CrI: 1.07-15.77), pregabalin vs. lamotrigine (OR: 2.90, CrI: 1.19-7.22) and pregabalin vs. nortriptyline (OR: 4.10, CrI: 1.13-5.28). Nortriptyline reported the highest possibility of achieving 30% and 50% pain reduction. Sodium valproate and benztropine reported the highest probability of total withdrawals and withdrawals due to adverse drug events, respectively.

Limitation: The different follow-up time of the included studies can result in the variation of intended results.

Conclusion: Nortriptyline reported the advantage relative to other drugs in achieving 30% and 50% pain reduction from the baseline. Gabapentin reported a significance of 50% pain reduction relative to placebo.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis; evidence based medicine; network meta-analysis; Diabetic painful neuropathy.