Looking for the LOAEL or NOAEL Concentration of Nickel-Oxide Nanoparticles in a Long-Term Inhalation Exposure of Rats

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jan 3;22(1):416. doi: 10.3390/ijms22010416.


Rats were exposed to nickel oxide nano-aerosol at a concentration of 2.4 ± 0.4 µg/m3 in a "nose only" inhalation setup for 4 h at a time, 5 times a week, during an overall period of 2 weeks to 6 months. Based on the majority of the effects assessed, this kind of exposure may be considered as close to LOAEL (lowest observed adverse effect level), or even to NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level). At the same time, the experiment revealed genotoxic and allergic effects as early as in the first weeks of exposure, suggesting that these effects may have no threshold at all.

Keywords: allergic sensitization; genotoxicity; inhalation exposure; nickel oxide nanoparticles; pulmonary and systemic toxicity.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Inhalation Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Lung / drug effects
  • Lung / pathology*
  • Nanoparticles / toxicity*
  • Nickel / toxicity*
  • No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
  • Rats
  • Risk Assessment / methods*


  • Nickel
  • nickel monoxide