Treatment outcome of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia patients in Egypt

Indian J Cancer. 2021 Jan 6. doi: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_551_19. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) are a spectrum of tumors that develop from placental tissue. We aimed to evaluate the management and treatment outcome of GTN.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with GTN presented to Kasr Alainy Center of Clinical Oncology between 2008 and 2017 were included in this study. Patients were assigned to low or high-risk according to the World Health Organization (WHO) scoring system. All data were tabulated and statistically studied by descriptive analysis; comparison between the two groups was done using student t-test for continuous data and Chi-square test for categorical data.

Results: A total of 111 patients were studied; the majority of them had WHO low-risk score. In low-risk group, the overall response rate to methotrexate-folinic acid (MTX- FA) or actinomycin D (ActD) was 48.5%, comparable response rate observed between MTX and ActD was 48.2% vs 50%, respectively. Those who received MTX-FA 8-day regimen had higher response rate compared to a weekly schedule, however, no statistical significant difference was observed (51.6% vs 44.4%, respectively, P = 0.586), all low-risk patients who failed MTX or ActD achieved complete remission (CR) with subsequent chemotherapy. Patients with WHO score 5-6 had a significantly lower CR rate compared to patients with scores <5, (28% and 60%, respectively; P = 0.01). Five-years overall survival was significantly lower in high-risk than low-risk patients (79.3% vs 100%, respectively, P = <0.001).

Conclusion: Low-risk patients have a survival rate of 100% even if they did not respond to first-line chemotherapy, MTX-FA 8-day regimen seems to be more effective than MTX weekly regimen.

Keywords: Choriocarcinoma; gestational trophoblastic neoplasia; molar pregnancy.