Stereotactic body radiotherapy as a boost after external beam radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer patients

Indian J Cancer. 2020 Nov 2. doi: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_377_19. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: The effect of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy after external radiation in high-risk prostate cancer patients has been proven. Stereotactic body radiotherapy as a less invasive method has similar dosimetric results with HDR brachytherapy. This study aims to evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, acute side effects, and quality of life of patients who underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a boost after pelvic radiotherapy (RT).

Methods: A total of 34 patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT boost (21 Gy in three fractions) combined with whole pelvic RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) were evaluated. Biochemical control has been evaluated with PSA before, and after treatment, acute adverse events were evaluated with radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) grading scale and quality of life with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) scoring system.

Results: The mean follow-up of 34 patients was 41.2 months (range 7-52). The mean initial PSA level was 22.4 ng/mL. None of the patients had experienced a biochemical or clinical relapse of the disease. Grade 2 and higher acute gastrointestinal (GI) was observed in 14%, and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was observed in 29%. None of the patients had grade 3-4 late toxicity.

Conclusions: SBRT boost treatment after pelvic irradiation has been used with a good biochemical control and acceptable toxicity in high-risk prostate cancer patients. More extensive randomized trial results are needed on the subject.

Keywords: Intensity modulated radiation therapy; prostate cancer; quality of life; stereotactic body radiotherapy; toxicity.