Importance: The relationship of dietary niacin intake with the risk of hypertension remains unknown.
Objective: To determine the prospective association between dietary niacin intake and new-onset hypertension, and examine factors that may modify the association among Chinese adults.
Design, setting, and participants: This nationwide cohort study of 12 243 Chinese adults used dietary intake data from 7 rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was measured by 3 consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in combination with a weighing inventory taken over the same 3 days at the household level. Statistical analysis was conducted from May 2020 to August 2020.
Exposures: Dietary intake.
Main outcomes and measures: The study outcome was new-onset hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater and/or diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater, diagnosis by physician, or current antihypertensive treatment during the follow-up.
Results: The mean (SD) age of the study population was 41.2 (14.2) years, and 5728 (46.8%) of participants were men. The mean (SD) dietary niacin intake level was 14.8 (4.1) mg/d. A total of 4306 participants developed new-onset hypertension during a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 6.1 (3.6-11.3) years. When dietary niacin was assessed in quartiles, the lowest risk of new-onset hypertension was found in participants in quartile 3 (14.3 to <16.7 mg/d; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) compared with those in quartile 1 (<12.4 mg/d). Consistently in the threshold analysis, for every 1 mg/d increase in dietary niacin, there was a 2% decrease in new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00) in those with dietary niacin intake less than 15.6 mg/d, and a 3% increase in new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04) in participants with dietary niacin 15.6 mg/d or greater. Based on these results, there was a J-shaped association between dietary niacin intake and new-onset hypertension in the general population of Chinese adults, with an inflection point at 15.6 mg/d and a minimal risk at 14.3 to 16.7 mg/d (quartile 3) of dietary niacin intake.
Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study provide some evidence for maintaining the optimal dietary niacin intake levels for the primary prevention of hypertension.