Tectocerebellar dysraphia and occipital encephalocele associated with trisomy X: case report and review of the literature

Childs Nerv Syst. 2021 Oct;37(10):3257-3260. doi: 10.1007/s00381-020-04989-6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.


Introduction: Tectocerebellar dysraphia (TCD) is a rare sporadic malformation associated with severe neurodevelopmental morbidity and high infant mortality. The presence of other ciliopathies worsens the prognosis. Joubert syndrome (JS) is a ciliopathy associated with gene mutations, consisting of midbrain and cerebellum malformations, markedly lack fiber decussation at the level of the pontomesencephalic junction.

Case report: We report the case of a child who was born term with occipital encephalocele (OE), diagnosed with TCD and JS spectrum through computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and clinical findings. She had the OE surgically corrected after spontaneous rupture on the second day after delivery. She developed postoperative ventriculitis, meningitis, and hydrocephalus, successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics and cysto-ventriculostomy, cysto-cisternostomy, third ventriculostomy, and choroid plexus coagulation. G-band karyotyping showed 47, XXX, in all analyzed cells (trisomy X). The infant was followed up for 18 months, presenting, so far, a relatively good outcome.

Conclusion: This is the first case reported in the literature of the association of TCD/OE/JS spectrum (JSS) with trisomy X (XXX).

Keywords: Joubert syndrome; Occipital encephalocele; Tectocerebellar dysraphia; Trisomy X.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cerebellum / diagnostic imaging
  • Chromosomes, Human, X
  • Encephalocele* / complications
  • Encephalocele* / diagnostic imaging
  • Encephalocele* / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases, Cystic*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations
  • Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development
  • Trisomy

Supplementary concepts

  • Triple X syndrome