Introduction: Tectocerebellar dysraphia (TCD) is a rare sporadic malformation associated with severe neurodevelopmental morbidity and high infant mortality. The presence of other ciliopathies worsens the prognosis. Joubert syndrome (JS) is a ciliopathy associated with gene mutations, consisting of midbrain and cerebellum malformations, markedly lack fiber decussation at the level of the pontomesencephalic junction.
Case report: We report the case of a child who was born term with occipital encephalocele (OE), diagnosed with TCD and JS spectrum through computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and clinical findings. She had the OE surgically corrected after spontaneous rupture on the second day after delivery. She developed postoperative ventriculitis, meningitis, and hydrocephalus, successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics and cysto-ventriculostomy, cysto-cisternostomy, third ventriculostomy, and choroid plexus coagulation. G-band karyotyping showed 47, XXX, in all analyzed cells (trisomy X). The infant was followed up for 18 months, presenting, so far, a relatively good outcome.
Conclusion: This is the first case reported in the literature of the association of TCD/OE/JS spectrum (JSS) with trisomy X (XXX).
Keywords: Joubert syndrome; Occipital encephalocele; Tectocerebellar dysraphia; Trisomy X.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature.