Selective loss of a LAP1 isoform causes a muscle-specific nuclear envelopathy

Neurogenetics. 2021 Mar;22(1):33-41. doi: 10.1007/s10048-020-00632-3. Epub 2021 Jan 6.


The nuclear envelope (NE) separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm in all eukaryotic cells. A disruption of the NE structure compromises normal gene regulation and leads to severe human disorders collectively classified as nuclear envelopathies and affecting skeletal muscle, heart, brain, skin, and bones. The ubiquitous NE component LAP1B is encoded by TOR1AIP1, and the use of an alternative start codon gives rise to the shorter LAP1C isoform. TOR1AIP1 mutations have been identified in patients with diverging clinical presentations such as muscular dystrophy, progressive dystonia with cerebellar atrophy, and a severe multi-systemic disorder, but the correlation between the mutational effect and the clinical spectrum remains to be determined. Here, we describe a novel TOR1AIP1 patient manifesting childhood-onset muscle weakness and contractures, and we provide clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and genetic data. We demonstrate that the identified TOR1AIP1 frameshift mutation leads to the selective loss of the LAP1B isoform, while the expression of LAP1C was preserved. Through comparative review of all previously reported TOR1AIP1 cases, we delineate a genotype/phenotype correlation and conclude that LAP1B-specific mutations cause a progressive skeletal muscle phenotype, while mutations involving a loss of both LAP1B and LAP1C isoforms induce a syndromic disorder affecting skeletal muscle, brain, eyes, ear, skin, and bones.

Keywords: Emerin; LAP1; Lamin; Myopathy; Nuclear envelopathy; TOR1AIP1.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics*
  • Female
  • Frameshift Mutation / genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscles / metabolism
  • Muscles / pathology
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Nuclear Envelope / genetics*
  • Nuclear Envelope / metabolism
  • Nuclear Envelope / ultrastructure
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics*


  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • PIK3CA protein, human