Systemically Administered Hemostatic Nanoparticles for Identification and Treatment of Internal Bleeding

ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2019 May 13;5(5):2563-2576. doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00054. Epub 2019 May 2.

Abstract

Internal bleeding is an injury that can be difficult to localize and effectively treat without invasive surgeries. Injectable polymeric nanoparticles have been developed that can reduce clotting times and blood loss, but they have yet to incorporate sufficient diagnostic capabilities to assist in identifying bleeding sources. Herein, polymeric nanoparticles were developed to simultaneously treat internal bleeding while incorporating tracers for visualization of the nanoparticles by standard clinical imaging modalities. Addition of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine perchlorate (DiD; a fluorescent dye), biotin functionality, and gold nanoparticles to hemostatic polymeric nanoparticles resulted in nanoparticles amenable to imaging with near-infrared (NIR) imaging, immunohistochemistry, and X-ray computed tomography (CT), respectively. Following a lethal liver resection injury, visualization of accumulated nanoparticles by multiple imaging methods was achieved in rodents, with the highest accumulation observed at the liver injury site, resulting in improved survival rates. Tracer addition to therapeutic nanoparticles allows for an expansion of their applicability, during stabilization by first responders to diagnosis and identification of unknown internal bleeding sites by clinicians using standard clinical imaging modalities.

Keywords: bleeding; hemostasis; imaging; injectable; internal injuries; nanoparticle; theranostic.