Molar incisor hypomineralization, prevalence, pattern and distribution in Sudanese children

BMC Oral Health. 2021 Jan 6;21(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s12903-020-01383-1.


Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) has serious impact on oral health-related quality of life for a child, due to its effects on tooth structure, aesthetics and behavior of the child. The current study was designed to determine the prevalence, pattern and distribution of MIH in school children in Sudan.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 568 children, aged 8-11 years from schools in Khartoum State. Following the collection of their socio-demographic data, the children were examined for hypomineralization on the 12 MIH-index teeth, the pattern and distribution of the MIH. The data collected was analyzed to obtain descriptive statistics. The results related to the socio-demography and other dental-related factors were tested using chi-square test and Spearman Rank Correlation, with the significant level set at p < 0.05.

Results: The prevalence of MIH in the study population was 20.1%. The majority of the participants had both permanent first molars (PFMs) and permanent incisors affected (12.5%). However, in 7.6% of the cases only molars were affected. Even though more maxillary teeth were affected when compared to the mandibular teeth, there was no statistical significant difference between the occurrence of hypomineralization on mandibular and maxillary molars (p = 0.22). Maxillary incisors were significantly more affected by MIH when related to the mandibular ones (p = 0.00). Demarcated opacities were the commonest pattern of MIH defects (69.9%) in the experimental group.

Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in Sudanese children was 20.1%. In both dental arches, the permanent molars and incisors were frequently affected, with the demarcated opacity type of MIH being the most common form of defect.

Keywords: Distribution; MIH; Pattern; Prevalence; Sudanese children.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • Quality of Life*
  • Sudan / epidemiology