Clinical, neuropsychological and neurophysiological indices and predictors of hepatic encephalopathy (HE)

Liver Int. 2021 Jan 7. doi: 10.1111/liv.14785. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background & aims: The occurrence of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) marks a significant progression in the natural history of liver disease. The aims of the present study were: 1) to describe a large cohort of patients with cirrhosis in terms of neuropsychological/neurophysiological HE indices, and 2) to test if the severity of liver disease and/or any such indices [Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES), Scan test, electroencephalography (EEG)] predicted mortality/HE risk in a subgroup of such cohort.

Method: 461 patients with cirrhosis (59±10 years; 345 males) were included; information on previous overt HE episodes was available in 407. Follow up information on mortality/HE-related hospitalization in 134/127, respectively. Information on previous overt HE episodes and both mortality and HE-related hospitalization over the follow up in 124.

Results: Patients with a history of overt HE (60%) had poorer liver function, worse neuropsychiatric indices, higher ammonia levels and higher prevalence of portal-systemic shunt. The risk of HE-related hospitalization over the follow up was higher in patients with higher MELD score and worse Scan performance. Mortality was higher in those with higher MELD. Amongst patients without a history of overt HE, those with worse PHES had higher HE risk. Amongst patients with a history, those with higher MELD, better PHES and worse Scan performance had higher HE risk.

Conclusions: In patients without previous overt HE episodes, neuropsychological and neurophysiological tests predict HE, while in those with previous overt HE episodes, HE development largely depends on the severity of liver dysfunction.

Keywords: cirrhosis; hepatic encephalopathy history; neurophysiology; neuropsychology; survival.