Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) were initially reported as complications associated with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings; however, there is increasing concern regarding the occurrence of adverse local tissue reactions from mechanically assisted crevice corrosion (MACC) at the femoral head-neck junction or between other modular junctions of the implant containing cobalt chromium parts in patients with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings. ALTR due to MACC at the head-neck junction has primarily been reported in association with cobalt chromium alloy femoral heads. As pain following total hip arthroplasty may have various intrinsic and extrinsic causes, a systematic approach to evaluation (risk stratification algorithm) based on the currently available data is recommended to optimize patient management. Evaluation should begin by ruling out common causes of pain, including component loosening and periprosthetic joint infection. While specialized tests such as blood metal analysis and metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MARS MRI) are useful modalities in evaluating for ALTRs, over-reliance on any single investigative tool in the clinical decision-making process should be avoided. There should be a low threshold to perform a systematic evaluation for ALTR due to MACC in patients with metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty as early recognition and diagnosis is critical, as delays in appropriate treatment initiation may result in soft-tissue damage, which complicates surgical treatment and is associated with a higher risk of complications and poorer patient outcomes.
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