A 21-year-old woman was hospitalized due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated respiratory and hepatic impairment concomitant with severe hemolytic anemia. Upon diagnosis of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, immunosuppression with anakinra and steroids was started, leading to a hepatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and viremia. Subsequent liver biopsy revealed virus particles in hepatocytes by electron microscopy and SARS-CoV-2 virus could be isolated and cultured. Immunosuppression was stopped and convalescent donor plasma given. In the differential diagnosis, an acute crisis of Wilson's disease was raised by laboratory and genetic testing. This case highlights the complexity of balancing immunosuppression to control hyperinflammation versus systemic SARS-CoV-2 dissemination.
Keywords: COVID-19; Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; Liver injury; SARS-CoV-2; Wilson’s disease.
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