Self-reported sleep bruxism is associated with vitamin D deficiency and low dietary calcium intake: a case-control study

BMC Oral Health. 2021 Jan 7;21(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s12903-020-01349-3.


Background: Sleep bruxism may result in deleterious effects including loss of tooth enamel, fracture of teeth or restorations, teeth hypersensitivity or pain, and headache. The aim was to study the link between sleep bruxism, low serum vitamin D, low consumption of dietary calcium, psychological symptoms, and frequent headache.

Methods: This case-controlled study included 50 individuals with sleep bruxism and 50 age and gender matched controls. 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in serum. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure anxiety and depression. Data about dietary calcium and frequent headache were self-reported.

Results: Participants with sleep bruxism had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D and higher scores of anxiety and depression compared to controls (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency, abnormal scores of anxiety and depression, low calcium consumption (< 323 mg/day), and frequent headache were reported in higher % of individuals with sleep bruxism compared to controls (p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression showed that sleep bruxism was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency (OR = 6.66, p = 0.02), low consumption of dietary calcium (OR = 5.94, p = 0.01), and frequent headache (OR = 9.24, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression showed that anxiety was significantly associated with decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D (p = 0.03), increased scores of depression (p < 0.001) and female sex (p = 0.01). Binary logistic regression also showed that frequent headache was significantly associated with sleep bruxism (OR = 5.51, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Sleep bruxism was associated with vitamin D deficiency and low consumption of calcium and was also associated with increased scores of anxiety and depression. Further investigations should be performed to check if vitamin D and calcium supplementation could relieve sleep bruxism.

Keywords: Anxiety; Bruxism; Calcium; Depression; Headache; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bruxism*
  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Self Report
  • Sleep Bruxism* / complications
  • Sleep Bruxism* / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / epidemiology


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Vitamin D