Pellitory plant (Parietaria judaica (PJ)) is one of the most widely used Arabian traditional medicinal plants due to its ability to cure several infectious diseases and other illnesses. The current study is aimed at assessing the phytoconstituents, antilipase, antiamylase, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic characters of the Pellitory plant (Parietaria judaica (PJ)). Phytochemical screening and procyanidin detection were conducted according to the standard phytochemical procedures. Porcine pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibitory activities were carried out using p-nitrophenyl butyrate and dinitrosalicylic acid assays, respectively. In addition, antimicrobial activity was determined utilizing a microdilution assay against several bacterial and fungal strains. Besides, the cytotoxic effect against HeLa cell line was tested employing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. The quantitative test results revealed that the methanol fraction of PJ contains 18.55 ± 0.55 mg of procyanidin and has a potential α-amylase inhibitory activity compared with the antidiabetic drug Acarbose with IC50 values of 15.84 ± 2.25 and 28.18 ± 1.22 μg/ml, respectively. Also, it has a potential antilipase activity compared to the commercial antiobesity drug, Orlistat, with IC50 values of 38.9 ± 0.29 and 12.3 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. The acetone, hexane, and methanol fractions have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against the screened bacterial strains, while the acetone fraction has shown anticandidal activity with a MIC value of 0.195 mg/ml. The PJ hexane and acetone fractions decreased HeLa cell viability significantly (p value < 0.0001) by approximately 90% at the concentration of 0.625 mg/ml. The revealed outcomes showed that the methanol fraction has strong α-amylase and lipase inhibitory characters. Besides, acetone, hexane, and methanol fractions have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, while the acetone fraction revealed potent antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Moreover, at low concentrations, hexane and acetone fractions have potent cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity against HeLa cancer cells. Nevertheless, PJ acetone, hexane, and methanol fractions can serve as an effective source of natural products to develop new antiobesity, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer agents.
Copyright © 2020 Mohammad Qadi et al.