Background: Peritoneal dissemination of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs), sometimes referred to as pseudomyxoma peritonei, can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the natural history of localized (non-disseminated) LAMNs.
Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of peritoneal recurrence in patients with localized LAMNs.
Methods: We performed a multi-institutional retrospective review of patients with pathologically confirmed localized LAMNs. Baseline characteristics, pathology, and follow-up data were collected. The primary endpoint was the rate of peritoneal recurrence.
Results: We identified 217 patients with localized LAMNs. Median age was 59 years (11-95) and 131 (60%) patients were female. Surgical management included appendectomy for 124 (57.1%) patients, appendectomy with partial cecectomy for 26 (12.0%) patients, and colectomy for 67 (30.9%) patients. Pathology revealed perforation in 46 patients (37.7% of 122 patients with perforation status mentioned in the report), extra-appendiceal acellular mucin (EAM) in 49 (22.6%) patients, and extra-appendiceal neoplastic cells (EAC) in 13 (6.0%) patients. Median follow-up was 51.1 months (0-271). Seven (3.2%) patients developed a peritoneal recurrence, with a median time to recurrence of 14.4 months (2.5-47.0). Seven (15.2%) patients with histologic evidence of perforation had recurrence, versus no patients (0%) without perforation (p < 0.001); five (10.2%) patients with EAM versus two (1.2%) patients without EAM (p = 0.007), and one (7.7%) patient with EAC versus six (2.9%) patients without EAC (p = 0.355) had recurrence.
Conclusions: This multi-institutional study represents the largest reported series of patients with localized LAMNs. In the absence of perforation or extra-appendiceal mucin or cells, recurrence was extremely rare; however, patients with any of these pathologic findings require careful follow-up.