The Frontiers of Appendiceal Controversies: Mucinous Neoplasms and Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

Am J Surg Pathol. 2022 Jan 1;46(1):e27-e42. doi: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001662.


Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms show a range of morphologic features and biological risk. At one end of the spectrum, high-grade adenocarcinomas are cytologically malignant with infiltrative invasion, lymph node metastases, and behavior similar to that of extra-appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinomas. At the other end, mucinous neoplasms confined to the mucosa are uniformly benign. Some cases lying between these extremes have potential risk to metastasize within the abdomen despite a lack of malignant histologic features. They show "diverticulum-like," pushing invasion of mostly low-grade epithelium through the appendix with, or without, concomitant organizing intra-abdominal mucin. The latter condition, widely termed "pseudomyxoma peritonei," tends to pursue a relentless course punctuated by multiple recurrences despite cytoreductive therapy, culminating in death for many patients. The combination of bland histologic features and protracted behavior of peritoneal disease has led some authors to question whether these metastatic tumors even represent malignancies. The World Health Organization and its cadre of experts widely promote usage of "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" as an umbrella term to encompass benign and malignant conditions, as well as those that have uncertain biological potential. Although this practice greatly simplifies tumor classification, it causes confusion and consternation among pathologists, clinical colleagues, and patients. It also increases the likelihood that at least some patients will undergo unnecessary surveillance for, and treatment of, benign neoplasms and non-neoplastic conditions. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the relevant literature and discuss a practical approach to classifying appendiceal mucinous neoplasms that more closely approximates their biological risk.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / chemistry
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Appendix / chemistry
  • Appendix / pathology*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • Biopsy
  • Clinical Decision-Making
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous / chemistry
  • Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous / pathology*
  • Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous / therapy
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / chemistry
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / pathology*
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / therapy
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers, Tumor