Surgical and oncologic outcomes of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for uterine leiomyosarcoma: A systematic review of literature

Gynecol Oncol. 2021 Apr;161(1):70-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.12.032. Epub 2021 Jan 6.


Objective: To examine the perioperative and survival outcomes in women with disseminated peritoneal uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS) who underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

Methods: A comprehensive systematic review of literature was conducted using multiple public search engines, PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library, in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines. Women with disseminated peritoneal uLMS treated with CRS-HIPEC were analyzed. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rate as well as oncologic outcomes related to CRS-HIPEC were assessed.

Results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria from 2004 to 2020, including 8 case series (n=28) and 2 original articles (n=47). Of the 75 patients, 68 (90.7%) were women with uLMS whereas 7 women were non-uLMS. Of these, 64 (85.3%) had recurrent disease, and 39 (52.0%) received chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to CRS-HIPEC. The perioperative mortality rate was 4.0% (intraoperative 1.3%, and postoperative 2.7%), and postoperative complications (grade ≥3) rate ranged 21.4-22.2%. With regard to HIPEC regimens (n=75), cisplatin was most frequently used (n=55, 73.3%) followed by melphalan (n=17, 22.7%) and others (n=3, 4.0%). Among the two observational studies, the median overall survival after CRS-HIPEC treatment was 29.5-37 months. In one limited comparative effectiveness study (n=13), albeit statistically non-significant CRS-HIPEC was associated with higher progression-free survival versus CRS alone (3-year rates, 71.4% versus 0%, P=0.10). When the HIPEC regimens were compared, melphalan use was associated with decreased uLMS-related mortality compared to a cisplatin-based regimen, but the association was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.04-3.05, P=0.35).

Conclusion: Effectiveness of CRS-HIPEC for disseminated peritoneal uLMS is yet to be determined. As interpretation of the available data on survival is limited due to small sample sizes or the lack of an active comparator, further study is warranted to examine the safety and survival effect of CRS-HIPEC in disseminated peritoneal uLMS.

Keywords: Cytoreductive surgery; HIPEC; Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy; Systematic review; Uterine leiomyosarcoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage
  • Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy / methods*
  • Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy
  • Leiomyosarcoma / surgery
  • Leiomyosarcoma / therapy*
  • Melphalan / administration & dosage
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • Uterine Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Melphalan