Kallman syndrome and central non-obstructive azoospermia

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Dec;34(6):101475. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2020.101475. Epub 2020 Dec 1.


The understanding of male factors of infertility has grown exponentially in the past ten years. While clear guidelines for obstructive azoospermia have been developed, management of non-obstructive azoospermia has lagged. Specifically, management of Kallmann Syndrome and central non-obstructive azoospermia has been limited by a lack of understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and investigational trials exploring the best option for management and fertility in these patients. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of the causes of central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with a focus on genetic etiologies while also discussing options that endocrinologists and urologists can utilize to successfully treat this group of infertile men.

Keywords: Kallman syndrome; congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; fertility; genetics; non-obstructive azoospermia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Azoospermia* / epidemiology
  • Azoospermia* / etiology
  • Azoospermia* / genetics
  • Azoospermia* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / complications
  • Hypogonadism / epidemiology
  • Hypogonadism / genetics
  • Hypogonadism / therapy
  • Infertility, Male / complications
  • Infertility, Male / epidemiology
  • Infertility, Male / genetics
  • Infertility, Male / therapy
  • Kallmann Syndrome* / complications
  • Kallmann Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Kallmann Syndrome* / genetics
  • Kallmann Syndrome* / therapy
  • Klinefelter Syndrome / complications
  • Klinefelter Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Klinefelter Syndrome / genetics
  • Klinefelter Syndrome / therapy
  • Male