Estimated dietary sodium intake in Thailand: A nationwide population survey with 24-hour urine collections

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2021 Apr;23(4):744-754. doi: 10.1111/jch.14147. Epub 2021 Jan 8.


Thailand has committed to reducing population sodium intake by 30% by 2025. However, reliable nationally representative data are unavailable for monitoring progress toward the goal. We estimated dietary sodium consumption using 24-hour urinary analyses in a nationally representative, cross-sectional population-based survey. We selected 2388 adults (aged ≥ 18 years) from the North, South, North-east, Central Regions, and Bangkok, using multi-stage cluster sampling. Mean sodium excretion was inflated by 10% to adjust for non-urinary sources. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess factors associated with sodium consumption ≥ 2000 mg. Among 1599 (67%) who completed urine collection, mean age was 43 years, 53% were female, and 30% had hypertension. Mean dietary sodium intake (mg/day) was 3636 (±1722), highest in South (4108 ± 1677), and lowest in North-east (3316 ± 1608). Higher sodium consumption was independently associated with younger age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.81; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.53-5.17; p = .001); higher education (AOR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19-2.67; p = .005), BMI ≥ 25 (AOR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.09-2.21; p=.016), and hypertension (AOR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.02-2.44; p = .038). Urine potassium excretion was 1221 mg/day with little variation across Regions. Estimated dietary sodium consumption in Thai adults is nearly twice as high as recommended levels. These data provide a benchmark for future monitoring.

Keywords: 24-hour urinary sodium; Thailand; dietary sodium intake; population survey; potassium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Sodium, Dietary*
  • Thailand
  • Urine Specimen Collection


  • Sodium, Dietary