Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an independent predictor of short- and long-term outcomes in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Prior studies suggest a lower incidence of AKI in patients undergoing PCI through radial artery compared to femoral artery access; however, no randomized clinical trials have specifically investigated this question in patients presenting with STEMI.
Methods: To determine whether radial access (RA) is associated with a reduced frequency of AKI following primary PCI, we performed a substudy of the SAFARI-STEMI trial. The SAFARI-STEMI trial was an open-label, multicenter trial, which randomized patients presenting with STEMI to RA or femoral access (FA), between July 2011 and December 2018. The primary outcome of this post hoc analysis was the incidence of AKI, defined as an absolute (>0.5 mg/dL) or relative (>25%) increase in serum creatinine from baseline.
Results: In total 2,285 (99.3%) of the patients enrolled in SAFARI-STEMI were included in the analysis-1,132 RA and 1,153 FA. AKI occurred in 243 (21.5%) RA patients and 226 (19.6%) FA patients (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.78-1.07, P = .27). An absolute increase in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dL was seen in 49 (4.3%) radial and 52 (4.5%) femoral patients (RR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.71-1.53, P = .83). AKI was lower in both groups when the KDIGO definition was applied (RA 11.9% vs FA 10.8%; RR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.72-1.13, P = .38).
Conclusions: Among STEMI patients enrolled in the SAFARI-STEMI trial, there was no association between catheterization access site and AKI, irrespective of the definition applied. These results challenge the independent association between catheterization access site and AKI noted in prior investigations.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398254.
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