Association between intake of white rice and incident type 2 diabetes - An updated meta-analysis

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2021 Feb:172:108651. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108651. Epub 2021 Jan 7.


Aims: Meta-analyses on the association between white rice intake and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been inconsistent. Since the last meta-analysis, more studies have been published with inconsistent results. We aimed to examine the rice-T2D association in Asian populations in an updated meta-analysis.

Methods: We systematically searched the Medline and Embase databases between January 2012 (the date of the first meta-analysis) and December 2020 for prospective studies examining T2D risk and baseline rice intake. Random-effects models were applied to pool relative risks (RRs). Meta regression analyses were used to evaluate the influence of sex.

Results: Six articles with eleven comparisons in Asian countries were included in the current meta-analysis. A total of 12,395 incident T2D cases were ascertained from 256,818 participants. The pooled RR was 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.33) comparing extreme categories of rice intake with higher heterogeneity (I2 = 88%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by sex, the RR was 1.58 (1.26-1.99) among women and 1.30 (0.85-1.98) among men (P-interaction = 0.42).

Conclusions: A positive association between rice intake and incident T2D in Asian populations was found, especially among women.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Epidemiology; Meta-Analysis; Oryza; Prospective Studies; Type 2.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oryza / adverse effects*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors