Traditional Mushroom Consumption Associated to Lower Levels of Triglycerides and Blood Pressure in an Indigenous Peasant Community from Oaxaca, Mexico

Int J Med Mushrooms. 2020;22(10):953-966. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020036350.

Abstract

Traditional consumption of edible mushrooms is supported by ethnomycological studies worldwide. However, the potential impact of mushroom consumption on the nutritional and health status of remote rural communities has not yet been studied. We carried out these initial standard studies in the indigenous peasant community of Benito Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico. Participant adults (45) were grouped as follows: optimal body mass index (BMI: 17.8%), overweight (48.9%), obesity type I (24.5%), obesity type II (4.4%), and obesity type III (4.4%). A high proportion of women (90.3%) and men (64.3%) had a high risk of cardiovascular disease (WHI: waist/hip index). Most women (93.6%) and men (57.1%) showed abdominal obesity. In biochemical parameters, subjects had hypertriglyceridemia (75.6%), hypercholesterolemia (26.7%), hyperglycemia (53.3%), and hypertension (46.7%). There was an excessive intake in the diet of energy, proteins, carbohydrates, sugar, and lipids, as well as a deficiency in the consumption of several vitamins and minerals. A high frequency of mushroom consumption (> 3 times per week) was significantly correlated to lower energy, lipids, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and sodium intake, as well as to higher intake of cobalamin and zinc. The levels of triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower in adults consuming edible mushrooms every day. Total cholesterol also tended to be lower. These associations allow to promote healthier diets in remote indigenous communities by keeping or increasing the consumption of edible mushrooms, either wild or cultivated. Edible mushrooms can play a more important role in community nutrition and health, considering their unique functional and medicinal properties.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Agaricales / chemistry*
  • Agaricales / metabolism*
  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diet therapy*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Indigenous Peoples / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Mexico
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Triglycerides / blood*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Triglycerides