Data regarding antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients infected with COVID-19 are not yet available. In this study, we aimed to evaluate serum antibody responses in patients regardless of the outcome. We measured the circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in 60 subjects with a certified history of SARS-CoV-2 infection by using immunoenzymatic, chemiluminescent, and Neutralization assays. Half patients had a severe infection, the other half were pauci-symptomatic. We analyzed their antibody response to see the trend of the humoral response. Our results showed a significant difference in circulating IgG level among the two groups. The neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 was significantly higher among those who had severe disease. Furthermore, ten subjects from each group were screened twice, and a declining antibody trend was observed in pauci-symptomatic individuals. These findings provide evidence that humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in pauci-symptomatic people is weak and may not be long-lasting. This may have implications for immunity strategy and prevention, since it is still not clear whether a time-dependent decrease of both circulating and neutralizing antibodies to nonprotective levels could occur in a longer time span and whether potential vaccines are able to induce a herd immunity and a durable response.
Keywords: coronavirus; humoral immunity; neutralization.
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