Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is one of the most widely studied and disseminated treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other comorbid conditions, and has been identified as a "level one" or "well-established" intervention for school-aged children and adolescents. The present systematic review examined the literature on the application of TF-CBT within a preschool-aged population (i.e., children ages three to six), as well as the developmental literature that could increase the efficacy of TF-CBT for preschool-aged children. Information on the use of TF-CBT with preschool-aged children was extracted from randomized controlled trials, case studies, meta-analyses, and other forms of empirical evidence, as part of the evidence-based practice in psychology framework. In comparison to research with school-aged children and adolescents, fewer studies have directly assessed the efficacy of TF-CBT for preschool-aged children who have been exposed to trauma. Given the few studies published to date and difference in treatment protocols for TF-CBT used with preschool-age children, TF-CBT appears to meet criteria as a "level two" or "probably efficacious" intervention for preschool-aged children specifically. According to the available literature, language and cognitive abilities, family context, culture, and clinician expertise are considered as potential variables to address when contemplating the use of TF-CBT for preschool-aged children with symptoms of post-traumatic stress.
Keywords: Evidence-based therapy; Intervention; Preschool-age children; Systematic review; TF-CBT; Trauma.