Efficient embedded sleep wake classification for open-source actigraphy

Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 11;11(1):345. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-79294-y.


This study presents a thorough analysis of sleep/wake detection algorithms for efficient on-device sleep tracking using wearable accelerometric devices. It develops a novel end-to-end algorithm using convolutional neural network applied to raw accelerometric signals recorded by an open-source wrist-worn actigraph. The aim of the study is to develop an automatic classifier that: (1) is highly generalizable to heterogenous subjects, (2) would not require manual features' extraction, (3) is computationally lightweight, embeddable on a sleep tracking device, and (4) is suitable for a wide assortment of actigraphs. Hereby, authors analyze sleep parameters, such as total sleep time, waking after sleep onset and sleep efficiency, by comparing the outcomes of the proposed algorithm to the gold standard polysomnographic concurrent recordings. The relatively substantial agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficient, median, equal to 0.78 ± 0.07) and the low-computational cost (2727 floating-point operations) make this solution suitable for an on-board sleep-detection approach.

MeSH terms

  • Actigraphy*
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / instrumentation
  • Neural Networks, Computer
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted*
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Wakefulness / physiology*
  • Wearable Electronic Devices