Morphological and Behavioral Effects in Zebrafish Embryos after Exposure to Smoke Dyes

Toxics. 2021 Jan 10;9(1):9. doi: 10.3390/toxics9010009.


Solvent Violet 47 (SV47) and Disperse Blue 14 (DB14) are two anthraquinone dyes that were previously used in different formulations for the production of violet-colored smoke. Both dyes have shown potential for toxicity; however, there is no comprehensive understanding of their effects. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to SV47 or DB14 from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to assess the dyes' potential adverse effects on developing embryos. The potential ability of both dyes to cross the blood-brain barrier was also assessed. At concentrations between 0.55 and 5.23 mg/L, SV47 showed a dose-dependent increase in mortality, jaw malformation, axis curvature, and edemas. At concentrations between 0.15 and 7.54 mg/L, DB14 did not have this same dose-dependence but had similar morphological outcomes at the highest doses. Nevertheless, while SV47 showed significant mortality from 4.20 mg/L, there was no significant mortality on embryos exposed to DB14. Regardless, decreased locomotor movement was observed at all concentrations of DB14, suggesting an adverse neurodevelopmental effect. Overall, our results showed that at similar concentrations, SV47 and DB14 caused different types of phenotypic effects in zebrafish embryos.

Keywords: Disperse Blue 14; Solvent Violet 47; anthraquinone dyes; behavior; zebrafish.