Neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase gene fusions (NTRK) are oncogenic drivers present at a low frequency in most tumour types (<5%), and at a higher frequency (>80%) in a small number of rare tumours (e.g., infantile fibrosarcoma [IFS]) and considered mutually exclusive with other common oncogenic drivers. Health Canada recently approved two tyrosine receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitors, larotrectinib (for adults and children) and entrectinib (for adults), for the treatment of solid tumours harbouring NTRK gene fusions. In Phase I/II trials, these TRK inhibitors have demonstrated promising overall response rates and tolerability in patients with TRK fusion cancer who have exhausted other treatment options. In these studies, children appear to have similar responses and tolerability to adults. In this report, we provide a Canadian consensus on when and how to test for NTRK gene fusions and when to consider treatment with a TRK inhibitor for pediatric patients with solid tumours. We focus on three pediatric tumour types: non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma/unspecified spindle cell tumours including IFS, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and glioma. We also propose a tumour-agnostic consensus based on the probability of the tumour harbouring an NTRK gene fusion. For children with locally advanced or metastatic TRK fusion cancer who have either failed upfront therapy or lack satisfactory treatment options, TRK inhibitor therapy should be considered.
Keywords: NTRK; TRK fusion; entrectinib; larotrectinib; molecular testing; oncogenic drivers; targeted therapy; tumour-agnostic.