Integrating oral immunotherapy into clinical practice

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Jan;147(1):1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.11.011. Epub 2021 Jan 5.


In 2020, the first food allergy treatment, an oral immunotherapy (OIT) product for peanut allergy, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and a peanut epicutaneous immunotherapy patch was under review. As food allergy therapies become available and widespread, allergy offices will need to adjust practices to be able to offer their patients these new treatments. OIT is an intensive therapy that requires commitment from patients and their families, and open communication with the practice is paramount. OIT may not be the right therapy for every patient, and although identifying good candidates is still an area rich for research opportunity, experience from cohorts and clinical trials provides some insight. It is important to understand the scope of practice for each member of the OIT team based on state regulations for a particular location. Staffing and space will likely dictate how many patients at an individual office could be on active OIT at one time. Emergency medications, supplies, and protocols must be in place. Screening, scheduling, visit procedures, monitoring, home dosing, dose modifications, safety precautions, adverse reactions, and maintenance will be addressed in this article. Finally, adjunct therapies under investigation will be reviewed.

Keywords: Oral immunotherapy; epicutaneous immunotherapy; food allergy treatment; sublingual immunotherapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arachis / immunology*
  • Desensitization, Immunologic*
  • Humans
  • Peanut Hypersensitivity* / immunology
  • Peanut Hypersensitivity* / therapy