Surgical therapy was required for 42 incontinent female patients with myelomeningocele who had urodynamically documented high pressure bladders. Conservative treatment consisting of cholinolytic and alpha-adrenergic agents, and intermittent self-catheterization had failed. The surgical approach consisted of perivesical denervation (for hyperreflexia), Burch bladder neck suspension, enlargement cystoplasty and ureteral reimplantation when required. Among 33 patients (79 per cent) there was no incontinence on intermittent self-catheterization and 6 (14 per cent) had improvement with rare urgency or stress incontinence. In 3 patients (7 per cent) sphincteric incompetence required a transvaginal sling procedure.