Ontological modeling and analysis of experimentally or clinically verified drugs against coronavirus infection

Sci Data. 2021 Jan 13;8(1):16. doi: 10.1038/s41597-021-00799-w.


Our systematic literature collection and annotation identified 106 chemical drugs and 31 antibodies effective against the infection of at least one human coronavirus (including SARS-CoV, SAR-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV) in vitro or in vivo in an experimental or clinical setting. A total of 163 drug protein targets were identified, and 125 biological processes involving the drug targets were significantly enriched based on a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO) was used as an ontological platform to represent the anti-coronaviral drugs, chemical compounds, drug targets, biological processes, viruses, and the relations among these entities. In addition to new term generation, CIDO also adopted various terms from existing ontologies and developed new relations and axioms to semantically represent our annotated knowledge. The CIDO knowledgebase was systematically analyzed for scientific insights. To support rational drug design, a "Host-coronavirus interaction (HCI) checkpoint cocktail" strategy was proposed to interrupt the important checkpoints in the dynamic HCI network, and ontologies would greatly support the design process with interoperable knowledge representation and reasoning.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Datasets as Topic
  • Drug Design
  • Humans
  • Knowledge Bases
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
  • SARS Virus
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Antiviral Agents