Polydactyly of the Foot: A Review

J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2021 May 1;29(9):361-369. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00983.


Pediatric foot polydactyly presents in a wide variety of deformities from single extra digits attached only by a narrow soft-tissue connection to complex central foot duplications with tarsal bone duplication. The goal of surgical reconstruction is a stable, mobile, pain-free foot with five cosmetically appealing toes that allows for normal footwear and painless ambulation. This review covers the incidence, genetics and embryology, classification, presentation and natural history, physical examination, radiographic assessment, and surgical intervention for all types of foot polydactyly.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Foot
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital* / diagnosis
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Polydactyly* / epidemiology
  • Polydactyly* / surgery
  • Toes
  • Walking