Evaluation for Myocarditis in Competitive Student Athletes Recovering From Coronavirus Disease 2019 With Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

JAMA Cardiol. 2021 Jan 14;e207444. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.7444. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Importance: The utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a screening tool for myocarditis in competitive student athletes returning to training after recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is unknown.

Objective: To describe the prevalence and severity of cardiac MRI findings of myocarditis in a population of competitive student athletes recovering from COVID-19.

Design, setting, and participants: In this case series, an electronic health record search was performed at our institution (University of Wisconsin) to identify all competitive athletes (a consecutive sample) recovering from COVID-19, who underwent gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI between January 1, 2020, and November 29, 2020. The MRI findings were reviewed by 2 radiologists experienced in cardiac imaging, using the updated Lake Louise criteria. Serum markers of myocardial injury and inflammation (troponin-I, B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate), an electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, and relevant clinical data were obtained.

Exposures: COVID-19 infection, confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing.

Main outcomes and measures: Prevalence and severity of MRI findings consistent with myocarditis among young competitive athletes recovering from COVID-19.

Results: A total of 145 competitive student athletes (108 male and 37 female individuals; mean age, 20 years; range, 17-23 years) recovering from COVID-19 were included. Most patients had mild (71 [49.0%]) or moderate (40 [27.6%]) symptoms during the acute infection or were asymptomatic (24 [16.6%]). Symptoms were not specified or documented in 10 patients (6.9%). No patients required hospitalization. Cardiac MRIs were performed a median of 15 days (range, 11-194 days) after patients tested positive for COVID-19. Two patients had MRI findings consistent with myocarditis (1.4% [95% CI, 0.4%-4.9%]). Of these, 1 patient had marked nonischemic late gadolinium enhancement and T2-weighted signal abnormalities over multiple segments, along with an abnormal serum troponin-I level; the second patient had 1-cm nonischemic mild late gadolinium enhancement and mild T2-weighted signal abnormalities, with normal laboratory values.

Conclusions and relevance: In this case series study, based on MRI findings, there was a low prevalence of myocarditis (1.4%) among student athletes recovering from COVID-19 with no or mild to moderate symptoms. Thus, the utility of cardiac MRI as a screening tool for myocarditis in this patient population is questionable.