Relationship between Pathological Occlusal Changes and the Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Dysfunction

Turk J Orthod. 2020 Dec 2;33(4):210-215. doi: 10.5152/TurkJOrthod.2020.20035. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between pathological occlusal changes and the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD).

Methods: This cross-sectional, quantitative, non-randomized clinical trial was conducted on 150 participants. We examined adult patients of both genders with occlusal interference, malocclusion and dental absence in the posterior region of the dental arch that were associated or not associated with painful symptoms. The questionnaire was administered, and the intra- and extra-oral clinical examination was performed on each patient, including the evaluation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) to investigate the presence of dysfunction.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 33 years (±2.3), and 103 (68.7%) of them were women and 47 (31.3%) were men. Tooth loss and malocclusion were more prevalent in females. Tooth loss showed a statistically significant association with all the signs and symptoms of TMD (p=0.02). Patients with multiple teeth losses experienced preauricular pain during mandibular opening and closing. There was no association between malocclusion with tooth loss and the signs and symptoms of TMD in 65 patients (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Only in the patients with Class II malocclusion there was a significant association with 2 signs of TMD (crackling and bruxism). There was no association between malocclusion and tooth loss with the signs and symptoms of TMD. The signs and symptoms of TMD were more frequent in the patients who presented multiple teeth loss without malocclusion.

Keywords: Malocclusion; occlusion; temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome.