The effect of muscle architecture on the biomechanical failure properties of skeletal muscle under passive extension

Am J Sports Med. 1988 Jan-Feb;16(1):7-12. doi: 10.1177/036354658801600102.


This study investigates the biomechanical failure properties of five architecturally different skeletal muscles and examines the role muscle structure plays in the passive extension characteristics of musculotendinous units. The muscles used in this study fall into four morphologic categories: fusiform, unipennate, bipennate, and multipennate. Each muscle was pulled to failure at three different rates of strain (1, 10, and 100 cm/min). Specimens of fusiform, unipennate, and bipennate muscles were pulled from their proximal as well as distal attachments. The relationship of elongation to failure of the entire musculotendinous unit to resting muscle fiber length was examined to determine the effect of angle of pennation and fiber length on the failure properties. Our results demonstrate that all four muscle types tested show injury and rupture at the musculotendinous junction whether pulled from proximal or distal attachment, regardless of muscle structure and rate of strain. There was a statistically significant difference (P less than 0.005) in the degree of elongation to failure relative to resting muscle fiber length, with a tendency to greater elongation relative to fiber length for muscles with more pennate structure (tibialis anterior, 72.7% +/- 1.0%; extensor digitorum longus, 113.1% +/- 3.5%; rectus femoris, 225.5% +/- 3.7% elongation in percent resting fiber length).

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Hindlimb
  • Models, Biological
  • Muscles / anatomy & histology*
  • Muscles / injuries
  • Muscles / physiopathology
  • Rabbits
  • Rupture
  • Sprains and Strains / physiopathology
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Tendon Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Tendons / anatomy & histology
  • Tendons / physiopathology