A Model of Adolescent Sleep Health and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

Curr Diab Rep. 2021 Jan 15;21(2):4. doi: 10.1007/s11892-020-01373-1.


Purpose of review: This paper presents a review of the current literature in support of a model explaining the relationships between sleep health and risk for type 2 diabetes in adolescents.

Recent findings: Short sleep duration is associated with risk of developing obesity in youth. Sleep restriction increases energy expenditure, but also increases hunger, appetite, and food intake, causing positive energy balance, impacting appetite-regulating hormones, and leading to increased eating late at night. Insufficient sleep may lead to reduced physical activity and greater sedentary behaviors. In addition, short sleep duration is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity. The cumulative negative consequences of insufficient sleep increase risk for type 2 diabetes. Applications to clinical care, public policy, and future research are discussed. Insufficient sleep in adolescence increases risk for type 2 diabetes directly through impact on insulin sensitivity and indirectly through increased dietary intake, sedentary activity, and weight gain.

Keywords: Glucose metabolism; Insufficient sleep; Insulin resistance; Pediatrics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / etiology
  • Eating
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Humans
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Deprivation / complications
  • Weight Gain