Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by a variety of cells, including cancer cells, in the tumor microenvironment play crucial roles in cancer progression by transferring molecular cargos. Emerging evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important biomolecules that can be transferred by EVs to modulate cancer development. The potential clinical application of EV-transferred lncRNAs in biological fluids for cancer diagnosis has also been verified. Over the past decade, research on the biological roles and applications of EVs and their contents in human cancers has reached new heights. Therefore, a detailed discussion of the roles of EV-transferred lncRNAs in various cancers, including bladder cancer (BC), will provide a novel strategy for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we summarized and discussed the current studies on the detection technologies of EV-transferred lncRNAs. The diagnostic values of EV-transferred lncRNAs in various biological fluids, including urine, serum, and plasma, for BC diagnosis and prognosis were compared. Moreover, the biofunctional roles and clinical applications of these EV-transferred lncRNAs in BC were further discussed. In addition, we also highlighted the research directions and suggestions for future research on BC-associated EV-transferred lncRNAs. In conclusion, BC-associated EV-transferred lncRNAs show significant potential as noninvasive biomarkers or therapeutic targets for BC diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: Biomarkers; Bladder cancer; Extracellular vesicles; Long noncoding RNAs; Therapeutic targets.
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