The unique rheological properties of bread wheat dough and the breadmaking quality of its flour are the main factors responsible for the global distribution and utilization of wheat. Recently, interest in the production and expansion of spelt wheat has been boosted due to its significance in the production of healthy food, mostly originated from organic production. The aim of this study was to examine and compare quality parameters (gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation volume, farinograph dough properties), protein content and composition (by the Dumas method, Size Exclusion (SE) and Reversed Phase (RP) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses) of five bread and five spelt wheat varieties grown under conventional and organic production in Hungary and under conventional production in Serbia. Most of the analyzed traits showed significant differences between varieties, wheat species and growing sites. Total protein content was significantly higher in spelt than in bread wheat and under conventional than under organic production. In comparison to spelt, bread wheat showed better breadmaking quality, characterized by a higher amount of glutenins (in particular high molecular weight glutenin subunits) and unextractable polymeric proteins. The proportion of the gliadins was also found to be different under conventional and organic systems. Spelt Ostro and Oberkulmer-Rotkorn and bread wheat varieties Balkan, Estevan and Pobeda proved suitable for low input and organic systems.
Keywords: bread wheat; conventional; gliadin; gluten; glutenin; grain; organic; protein; quality; spelt.