State dependent activity in monkey visual cortex. II. Retinal and extraretinal factors in V4

Exp Brain Res. 1988;69(2):245-59. doi: 10.1007/BF00247570.


Responses were recorded from isolated neurons in the visual cortex of rhesus monkeys while they performed an orientation match to sample task. In each trial the animal was first cued with randomly selected orientation, and then presented with a sequence of gratings whose orientations were randomly selected. The animal was required to release a switch when it saw a grating that matched the cued orientation. For some recordings the animal was given a tactile cue by having it feel the orientation of a grooved plate that it could not see. In other experiments the cue orientation was presented visually on the screen in front of the animal and then removed before the sequence of gratings was presented. Using this task it was possible to determine if a neuron's response to a particular orientation was affected by whether or not it was the orientation for which the animal was looking. Over half the neurons examined in V4 (110/192) responded differently to the visual stimuli when the animal was cued to look for different orientations. For some neurons responses to all stimuli were strong when the animal was cued to look for a particular orientation, but weak when the same stimuli were presented in trials where the animal had been cued to look for another orientation. This type of sensitivity was found in neurons recorded while the animal was given a tactile cue, and also in other neurons tested when a visual cue was used, suggesting that the activity was not of direct sensory origin. In support of this, neurons in V4 were not strongly affected when the animal felt the grooved plate while not performing the orientation matching task. The prevalence of behavioral effects that was found using the orientation matching task suggests that extraretinal signals represent a prominent component of the activity in V4 of the behaving monkey.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Mapping
  • Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory
  • Evoked Potentials, Visual
  • Form Perception / physiology*
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Pattern Recognition, Visual / physiology*
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology*
  • Retina / physiology*
  • Touch
  • Visual Cortex / physiology*
  • Visual Pathways / physiology