Diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome is preceded by gastroenteritis due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Support measures are recommended, specifically, fluid restriction to avoid cardiopulmonary overload. However, in the prodromal period or with established hemolytic uremic syndrome, volume expansion with isotonic fluids is safe and effective, and reduces the need for dialysis, the length of hospital and intensive care stay, neurological events, and hyponatremia. Therefore, when nephrological monitoring is available and/or short-term access to a tertiary care hospital is guaranteed, it is suggested to hydrate patients with no signs of cardiopulmonary overload, regardless of their renal function, with initial volume expansion. Afterwards, if an adequate urine output is achieved, the patient should not be dialyzed (except if they have a medically intractable metabolic/electrolyte disorder) and hydration should be continued with an isotonic solution containing 5 % dextrose for adequate hydration and urine output.
Keywords: dehydration; extracellular fluids; fluid therapy; hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.