Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of brivaracetam as adjunctive therapy in patients with focal seizures, generalized onset seizures, or Unverricht-Lundborg disease: An open-label, long-term follow-up trial

Epilepsy Res. 2021 Feb;170:106526. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106526. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Abstract

This long-term open-label extension (OLE) trial was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of brivaracetam (BRV) at individualized doses in patients with epilepsy and focal (partial-onset) or generalized onset seizures, or Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD). A secondary objective was to evaluate efficacy of BRV in the subgroups of patients with focal or generalized onset seizures. Patients with epilepsy were eligible to enroll in this OLE (N01125; NCT00175916) and were analyzed if they had completed a previous double-blind BRV trial (N01114 [NCT00175929], N01252 [NCT00490035], N01254 [NCT00504881], N01187 [NCT00357669], and N01236 [NCT00368251]), and were expected to obtain a reasonable benefit from long-term BRV treatment. Patients entered the OLE at the BRV dose recommended at the end of the previous trial, with dose adjustments of BRV and concomitant antiseizure medications permitted. Safety variables included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Efficacy variables in patients with focal seizures were percent reduction in focal seizure frequency, 50 % responder rates, and 6- and 12-month seizure-freedom. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients (729 [85.5 %] with focal seizures, 30 [3.5 %] with generalized onset seizures, and 94 [11.0 %] with ULD) were enrolled and included in the Safety Set. Overall, 619 (72.6 %) patients discontinued the trial, mainly due to lack of efficacy (354 [41.5 %]), adverse events (100 [11.7 %]), and patient choice (98 [11.5 %]). During the OLE, 588 (68.9 %) patients received BRV for ≥12 months, 403 (47.2 %) for ≥36 months, and 223 (26.1 %) for ≥96 months. The most common modal dose of BRV was 150 mg/day (415 [48.7 %] patients). In the ULD subgroup, the most common modal BRV dose was 100 mg/day (44/94 [46.8 %] patients), and 37/94 (39.4 %) patients had ≥96 months of BRV exposure. Overall, 720/853 (84.4 %) patients reported TEAEs, 451 (52.9 %) had a drug-related TEAE, and 95 (11.1 %) discontinued BRV due to a TEAE. In the ULD subgroup, 87/94 (92.6 %) patients reported TEAEs, 60 (63.8 %) had a drug-related TEAE, and 16 (17.0 %) discontinued due to a TEAE. In patients with focal seizures, the median reduction in focal seizure frequency from Baseline was 43.1 % (n = 728), the 50 % responder rate was 43.6 % (n = 729), and 6- and 12-month seizure freedom rates were 22.2 % and 15.8 %, respectively (n = 595). Overall, BRV was well-tolerated as long-term adjunctive therapy in patients with focal seizures, generalized onset seizures, or Unverricht-Lundborg disease, with improvements in focal seizure frequency maintained over time.

Keywords: Antiepileptic drug; Brivaracetam; Epilepsy; Focal seizure; Generalized onset seizure; Unverricht–Lundborg disease.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Epilepsy / drug therapy
  • Epilepsy, Generalized* / drug therapy
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Pyrrolidinones / adverse effects
  • Pyrrolidinones / therapeutic use*
  • Seizures* / drug therapy
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome* / drug therapy

Substances

  • Anticonvulsants
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Pyrrolidinones
  • brivaracetam

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00175916
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00175929
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00490035
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00504881
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00357669
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00368251