Asymptomatic Proteinuria and Haematuria in Healthy Public Primary School Children in Abuja, Nigeria

West Afr J Med. 2021 Jan;38(1):8-14.


Background: Urinary abnormalities detected on routine urinalysis in asymptomatic children may be indicators of underlying kidney diseases.

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic proteinuria and haematuria in healthy primary school children in Abuja.

Methods: Using multi-staged sampling method, early morning mid-stream urine was collected from healthy school children from urban and rural primary schools in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria for the presence of proteinuria and haematuria using urinalysis strips. Those positive for proteinuria and haematuria were retested after two weeks for persistence abnormalities. Urine microscopy was also done for the persistent haematuria subjects, and biodata collected.

Results: Of 861 urine samples analysed, 215 (25%) were from urban schools, and 646 (75%) from rural schools. There were 397 (46.1%) males. Their mean age was 9.5±2.1 years (range 6-12 years), with 9-10 years accounting for 36.4% of the study population. Proteinuria, haematuria, proteinuria+haematuria, persistent proteinuria, and persistent haematuria were seen in 7.0%, 10.6%, 3.6%, 4.2% and 5.5% of the subjects respectively. Microscopic haematuria was also documented in 5.2% subjects with persistent haematuria. Statistical significant association was seen between proteinuria with location of school (c2=9.529, p=0.002), and social class (c2=7.596, p=0.022). Significant association was also seen between haematuria and location of school (c2=14.218, p=0.001), social class (c2=11.290, p = 0.004).

Conclusion: There was high prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria and haematuria among healthy primary school children from the study area. This underscores the importance of routine urinary screening program in primary schools for early identification of affected children for intervention.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Female
  • Hematuria* / diagnosis
  • Hematuria* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microscopy*
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria* / diagnosis
  • Proteinuria* / epidemiology
  • Schools
  • Urinalysis